S o m a t i c   P s y c h o t h e r a p i s t
.  home  .
.  about  .
.  somatic psychology  .
.  library  .
.  theory  .
.  chronic illness  .
.  bonding & asthma  .
.  events  .
.  contact  .
b o u l d e r   |  c o
visit my blog
f a c i l i t a t i n g   m i n d   b o d y   d i a l o g u e   i n   c h r o n i c   i l l n e s s
   . references .


for Article on Type 1 Diabetes

A New Model for Understanding the Role of Environmental Factors in the Origins of Chronic Illness:
A Case Study of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

1. Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, editors. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 15th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2001.

2. Ganong WF. Review of Medical Physiology. Los Altos, CA: Lange Medical; 2001.

3. Sherwood L. Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems. Minneapolis, MN: West Publishing; 1993.

4. Nonogaki K. New insights into sympathetic regulation of glucose and fat metabolism. Diabetologia 2000;43(5):533-549.

5. Woods SC, Kulkosky PJ. Classically conditioned changes of blood glucose level. Psychosom Med 1976;38(3):201-219.

6. Diabetes Epidemiology Research International (DERI). Preventing insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: the environmental challenge. BMJ 1987;295(6596):479-481.

7. Kumar D, Gemayel NS, Deapen D et al. North-American twins with IDDM. Genetic, etiological, and clinical significance of disease concordance according to age, zygosity, and the interval after diagnosis in first twin. Diabetes 1993;42(9):1351-1363.

8. Dahlquist G. The aetiology of type 1 diabetes: an epidemiological perspective. Acta Paediatr Suppl 1998;425:5-10.

9. Alberti KMM, Zimmet P, Defronzo RA, editors. International textbook of diabetes mellitus. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1997.

10. Bennet PH, Rewers MJ, Knowler WC. Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus. In: Porte DJ, Sherwin RS, editors. Ellenberg and Rifkin's diabetes mellitus. 5th ed. Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange; 1997. p 373-400.

11. Schore AN. Affect Regulation and the Origin of the Self: The Neurobiology of Emotional Development. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum; 1994.

12. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood development. Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development. Shonkoff JP, Phillips DA, editors. Board on children, youth, and families, Commission on behavioral and social sciences and education. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2000.

13. Siegel D. The developing mind. New York:NY: Guilford; 1999.

14. Pynoos RS, Steinberg AM, Goenjian A. Traumatic stress in childhood and adolescence: recent developments and current controversies. In: van der Kolk BA, McFarlane AC, Weisaeth L, editors. Traumatic Stress: The Effects of Overwhelming Experience on Mind, Body, and Society. New York: Guilford; 1996. p 331-358.

15. Scaer RC. The Body Bears the Burden: Trauma, Dissociation, and Disease. New York: Haworth Medical; 2001.

16. Mead VP. Somatic Psychology Theory and the Origins of Chronic Illness: A Case Study of Type 1 Diabetes [Master's Thesis]. Boulder, CO: Naropa University; 2003. 427 p.

17. Hofer MA. Early stages in the organization of cardiovascular control. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1984;175(2):147-157.

18. Bruer JT. The brain and child development: time for some critical thinking. Public Health Rep 1998;113(5):388-397.

19. Turner AM, Greenough WT. Differential rearing effects on rat visual cortex synapses. I. Synaptic and neuronal density and synapses per neuron. Brain Res 1985;329:195-203.

20. Black JE. How a child builds its brain: some lessons from animal studies of neural plasticity. Prev Med 1998;27:168-171.

21. Bruer J. Neural connections: some you use, some you lose. Phi Delta Kappan. Volume 2003; 1999. p 264-277.

22. Kotulak R. Inside the brain: revolutionary discoveries of how the mind works. Prev Med 1998;27:246-247.

23. Young JB, Morrison SF. Effects of fetal and neonatal environment on sympathetic nervous system development. Diabetes Care 1998;21 (Suppl 2):B156-160.

24. Huttenlocher PR, Dabholkar AS. Regional differences in synaptogenesis in human cerebral cortex. J Comp Neurol 1997;387(2):167-178.

25. Huttenlocher PR. Synaptic density in human frontal cortex-developmental changes and effects of aging. Brain Res 1979;163(2):195-205.

back to the top

26. Chugani HT. A critical period of brain development: studies of cerebral glucose utilization with PET. Prev Med 1998;27:184-188.

27. Huttenlocher PR. Synapse elimination and plasticity in developing human cerebral cortex. Am J Ment Retard 1984;88(5):488-496.

28. Levitt P, Reinoso B, Jones L. The critical impact of early cellular environment on neuronal development. Prev Med 1998;27:180-183.

29. Dubos R, Savage D, Schaedler R. Biological Freudanism: lasting effects of early environmental influences. Pediatrics 1966;38(789-800).

30. Weiner H. Psychobiology and Human Disease. New York: Elsevier; 1977.

31. Nathanielsz P. Life in the Womb. Ithaca, NY: Promethean; 1999.

32. Gilbert BO, Johnson SB, Silverstein J, Malone J. Psychological and physiological responses to acute laboratory stressors in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus adolescents and nondiabetic controls. J Pediatr Psychol 1989;14(4):577-591.

33. Schore AN. Attachment and the regulation of the right brain. Attach Hum Dev 2000;2(1):23-47.

34. Basch MF. The concept of affect: a re-examination. J Am Psychoanal Assoc 1976;24:759-777.

35. Gunnar MR. Quality of early care and buffering of neuroendocrine stress reactions: potential effects on the developing human brain. Prev Med 1998;27(2):208-211.

36. Klaus MH, Kennell JH. Maternal-Infant Bonding. St. Louis: Mosby; 1976.

37. Carey-Smith MJ. Effects of prenatal influences on later life. N Z Med J 1984;97(747):15-17.

38. Caccia N, Johnson JM, Robinson GE, Barna T. Impact of prenatal testing on maternal-fetal bonding: chorionic villus sampling versus amniocentesis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991;165(4 Pt 1):1122-1125.

39. Spencer JW, Cox DN. A comparison of chorionic villi sampling and amniocentesis: acceptability of procedure and maternal attachment to pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1988;72(5):714-718.

40. Verny TR. Prenatal attachment. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 1996;25(6):464.

41. Verny TR. Tomorrow's Baby: The Art and Science of Parenting from Conception through Infancy. New York: Simon & Schuster; 2002.

42. Hales DJ, Lozoff B, Sosa R, Kennell JH. Defining the limits of the maternal sensitive period. Dev Med Child Neurol 1977;19(4):454-461.

43. de Chateau P, Holmberg H, Jakobsson K, Winberg J. A study of factors promoting and inhibiting lactation. Dev Med Child Neurol 1977;19(5):575-584.

44. de Chateau P, Wiberg B. Long-term effect on mother-infant behaviour of extra contact during the first hour post partum. III. Follow-up at one year. Scand J Soc Med 1984;12(2):91-103.

45. McGrath SK, Kennell JH. Extended mother-infant skin-to-skin contact and prospect of breastfeeding. Acta Paediatr 2002;91(12):1288-1289.

46. de Chateau P. The interaction between the infant and the environment: the importance of mother-child contact after delivery. Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl 1988;344:21-30.

47. Klaus MH, Jerauld R, Kreger NC, McAlpine W, Steffa M, Kennel JH. Maternal attachment. Importance of the first post-partum days. N Engl J Med 1972;286(9):460-463.

48. de Chateau P, Wiberg B. Long-term effect on mother-infant behaviour of extra contact during the first hour post partum. II. A follow-up at three months. Acta Paediatr Scand 1977;66(2):145-151.

49. de Chateau P, Wiberg B. Long-term effect on mother-infant behaviour of extra contact during the first hour post partum. I. First observations at 36 hours. Acta Paediatr Scand 1977;66(2):137-143.

50. de Chateau P. The first hour after delivery: its impact on synchrony of the parent- infant relationship. Paediatrician 1980;9(3-4):151-168.

back to the top

51. Hennessy MB. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to brief social separation. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1997;21(1):11-29.

52. Coe CL, Lubach GR, Schneider ML, Dierschke DJ, Ershler WB. Early rearing conditions alter immune responses in the developing infant primate. Pediatrics 1992;90(3 Pt 2):505-509.

53. Schore AN. The effects of early relational trauma on right brain development, affect regulation, and infant mental health. Infant Ment Health J 2001;22(1-2):201-269.

54. Gunnar MR. Reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system to stressors in normal infants and children. Pediatrics 1992;90(3 Pt 2):491-497.

55. Gunnar MR, Connors J, Isensee J, Wall L. Adrenocortical activity and behavioral distress in human newborns. Dev Psychobiol 1988;21(4):297-310.

56. McClellan MS, Cabianca WA. Effects of early mother-infant contact following cesarean birth. Obstet Gynecol 1980;56(1):52-55.

57. Gathwala G, Narayanan I. Cesarean section and delayed contact: effect on baby's behaviour [see comments]. Indian Pediatr 1990;27(12):1295-1299.

58. Gathwala G, Narayanan I. Influence of cesarean section on mother-baby interaction. Indian Pediatr 1991;28(1):45-50.

59. DiMatteo MR, Morton SC, Lepper HS et al. Cesarean childbirth and psychosocial outcomes: a meta-analysis. Health Psychol 1996;15(4):303-314.

60. Levine P. Waking the Tiger. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books; 1997.

61. van der Kolk BA, McFarlane AC, Weisaeth L, editors. Traumatic Stress: The Effects of Overwhelming Experience on Mind, Body, and Society. New York: Guilford; 1996.

62. Post RM, Weiss SRB, Smith M. Stress, conditioning, and the temporal aspects of affective disorders. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1995;771:677-695.

63. Ledoux J. The Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life. New York: Touchstone; 1996.

64. Post RM, Weiss SRB, Smith M. Sensitization and kindling: implications for the evolving neural substrate of PTSD. In: Freidman MJ, SCharney DS, Deutch AY, editors. Neurobiology and Clinical Consequences of Stress: From Normal Adaptation to PTSD. New York: Raven; 1995. p 203-244.

65. Antelman SM, Caggiula AR, Gershon S et al. Stressor induced oscillation: a possible model of the bidirectional symptoms of PTSD. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1997;821:296-304.

66. Southwick SM, Morgan III CA, Bremner AD et al. Noradrenergic alterations in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1997;821:125-141.

67. Post RM, Rubinow DR, Ballenger JC. Conditioning and sensitization in the longitudinal course of affective illness. Br J Psychiatry 1986;149:191-201.

68. Perry BD. Memories of fear: how the brain stores and retrieves physiologic states, feelings, behaviors and thoughts from traumatic events. In: Goodwin J, Attias R, editors. Splintered Reflections: Images of the Body in Trauma: Basic Books; 1999.

69. Scaer RC. The whiplash syndrome: a model of traumatic stress. The Journal of Cognitive Rehabilitation 2000;July/August:2-11.

70. McFarlane AC, Yehuda R. Resilience, vulnerability, and the course of postraumatic reactions. In: van der Kolk BA, McFarlane AC, Weisaeth L, editors. Traumatic Stress: The Effects of Overwhelming Experience on Mind, Body, and Society. New York: Guilford; 1996. p 155-181.

71. Campbell BA, Jaynes J. Reinstatement. Psychol Rev 1966;73(5):478-480.

72. Green BL. Comments on the "Empirical Basis for Biological Studies in PTSD". Ann N Y Acad Sci 1997;821:52-55.

73. Yule W. Posttraumatic stress disorder in the general population and in children. J Clin Psychiatry 2001;62 (Suppl 17):23-28.

74. Murburg MM. The psychobiology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: an overview. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1997;821:352-358.

75. Perry BD. Neurobiological sequelae of childhood trauma: Post-traumatic Stress Disorders in children. In: Murberg M, editor. Catecholamines in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: Emerging Concepts. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association; 1994. p 253-276.

back to the top

76. Perry BD. Incubated in terror: neurodevelopmental factors in the 'Cycle of Violence'. In: Osofsky J, editor. Children, Youth and Violence: The Search for Solutions. New York: Guilford; 1997. p 124-148.

77. Maunder RG, Hunter JH. Attachment and psychosomatic medicine: developmental contributions to stress and disease. Psychosom Med 2001;63:556-567.

78. Boyce WT, Barr RG, Zeltzer LK. Temperament and the psychobiology of childhood stress. Pediatrics 1992;90(3):483-486.

79. van der Kolk BA, Weisaeth L, van der Hart O. History of trauma in psychiatry. In: van der Kolk BA, McFarlane AC, Weisaeth L, editors. Traumatic Stress: The Effects of Overwhelming Experience on Mind, Body, and Society. New York: Guilford; 1996. p 47-74.

80. Shalev AY. Stress versus traumatic stress: from acute homeostatic reactions to chronic psychopathology. In: van der Kolk BA, McFarlane AC, Weisaeth L, editors. Traumatic Stress: The Effects of Overwhelming Experience on Mind, Body, and Society. New York: Guilford; 1996. p 77-101.

81. Sandman CA, Wadhwa PD, Dunkel-Schetter C et al. Psychobiological influences of stress and HPA regulation on the human fetus and infant birth outcomes. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1994;739:198-210.

82. Yehuda R, Giller EL, Southwick SM, Lowy MT, Mason JW. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal dysfunction in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry 1991;30:1030-1048.

83. Sandman CA, Wadhwa PD, Chicz-DeMet A, Dunkel-Schetter C, Porto M. Maternal stress, HPA activity, and fetal/infant outcome. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1997;814:266-725.

84. Wadhwa P, Sandman CA, Porto M, Dunkel-Schetter C, Garite TJ. The association between prenatal stress and infant birth weight and gestational age at birth: a prospective investigation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;169(4):858-865.

85. Copper RL, Goldenberg RL. The preterm prediction study: maternal stress is associated with spontaneous preterm birth at less than thirty-five weeks gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996;175(5):1286-1292.

86. McFarlane AC. The prevalence and longitudinal course of PTSD. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1997;821:10-23.

87. Calobrisi A. Biopsychosocial study of diabetes mellitus. Psychother Psychosom 1983;39(4):193-200.

88. Evans MB. Emotional stress and diabetic control: a postulated model for the effect of emotional distress upon intermediary metabolism in the diabetic. Biofeedback Self Regul 1985;10(3):241-254.

89. Sterling P, Eyer J. Biological basis of stress-related mortality. Soc Sci Med [E] 1981;15(1):3-42.

90. Soltesz G, Jeges S, Dahlquist G. Non-genetic risk determinants for type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in childhood. Hungarian Childhood Diabetes Epidemiology Study Group. Acta Paediatr 1994;83(7):730-735.

91. Treuting TF. The role of emotional factors in the etiology and course of diabetes mellitus: a review of the recent literature. Am J Med Sci 1962:131/193-147/109.

92. Mirsky IA. Emotional factors in the patient with diabetes mellitus. Bull Menninger Clin 1948;12:187-193.

93. Surwit RS, Schneider MS. Role of stress in the etiology and treatment of diabetes mellitus. Psychosom Med 1993;55(4):380-393.

94. Daniels GE. The role of emotion in the onset and course of diabetes. Psychosom Med 1948;10:288-290.

95. Pickup J, Williams G, editors. Textbook of diabetes. 2nd ed. Osney Mead, Oxford: Blackwell Science; 1997.

96. Cammarn MR. Trauma and diabetes. Postgrad Med 1964;35:A62-70.

97. Hinkle LEJ, Evans FM, Wolf E, Conger G, Edwards CJ, Pugh B. IV: Life history of three persons with relatively mild, stable diabetes, and relation of significant experiences in their lives to the onset and course of the disease. Psychosom Med 1951;13(3):184-202.

98. Daniels GE. Present trends in the evaluation of psychic factors in diabetes mellitus: a critical review of experimental, general medical and psychiatric literature of the last five years. Psychosom Med 1939;1:527-552.

99. Falstein EI, Judas I. Juvenile diabetes and its psychiatric implications. Am J Orthopsychiatry 1955;25:330-342.

back to the top

100. Gendel BR, Benjamin JE. Psychogenic factors in the etiology of diabetes. N Engl J Med 1946;234:556-560.

101. Dahlquist G, Blom L, Lonnberg G. The Swedish Childhood Diabetes Study: a multivariate analysis of risk determinants for diabetes in different age groups. Diabetologia 1991;34(10):757-762.

102. Carter WR, Herrman J, Stokes K, Cox DJ. Promotion of diabetes onset by stress in the BB rat (Abstract). Diabetologia 1987;30(8):674-675.

103. Halford WK, Cuddihy S, Mortimer RH. Psychological stress and blood glucose regulation in type 1 diabetic patients. Health Psychol 1990;9(5):516-528.

104. Hinkle LEJ, Evans FM, Wolf S. III: Life history of three persons with relatively labile diabetes, and relation of significant experiences in their lives to the onset and course of the disease. Psychosom Med 1951;13:160-183.

105. Surwit RS, Schneider MS, Feinglos MN. Stress and diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1992;15(10):1413-1422.

106. Gonder-Frederick LA, Carter WR, Cox DJ, Clarke WL. Environmental stress and blood glucose change in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Health Psychol 1990;9(5):503-515.

107. Riazi A, Bradley C. Diabetes, type I. In: Fink G, editor. Encylopedia of Stress. Volume I. San Diego: Academic Press; 2000. p 688-693.

108. Stabler B, Morris MA, Litton J, Feinglos MN, Surwit RS. Differential glycemic response to stress in type A and type B individuals with IDDM [letter]. Diabetes Care 1986;9(5):550-552.

109. Dahlquist G. Non-genetic risk determinants of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Metab 1994;20(3):251-257.

110. Hagglof B, Blom L, Dahlquist G, Lonnberg G, Sahlin B. The Swedish childhood diabetes study: indications of severe psychological stress as a risk factor for type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in childhood. Diabetologia 1991;34(8):579-583.

111. Rewers M, LaPorte RE, Walczak M, Dmochowski K, Bogaczynska E. Apparent epidemic of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Midwestern Poland. Diabetes 1987;36(1):106-113.

112. Hamman RF, Gay EC, Cruickshanks KJ et al. Colorado IDDM Registry. Incidence and validation of IDDM in children aged 0-17 yr. Diabetes Care 1990;13(5):499-506.

113. Dahlquist G, Blom L, Tuvemo T, Nystrom L, Sandstrom A, Wall S. The Swedish childhood diabetes study: results from a nine year case register and a one year case-referent study indicating that type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is associated with both type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and autoimmune disorders. Diabetologia 1989;32(1):2-6.

114. Rothwell PM, Gutnikov SA, McKinney PA, Schober E, Ionescu-Trigoviste C, Neu A. Seasonality of birth in children with diabetes in Europe: multicentre cohort study. BMJ 1999;319(7214):887-888.

115. Oldstone MB, Nerenberg M, Southern P, Price J, Lewicki H. Virus infection triggers insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in a transgenic model: role of anti-self (virus) immune response. Cell 1991;65:319-331.

116. Toniolo A, Onodera T, Yoon J-W, Notkins AL. Induction of diabetes by cumulative environmental insults from viruses and chemicals. Nature 1980;288:383-385.

117. Oldstone MBA. Prevention of type 1 diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice by virus infection. Science 1988;239:500-502.

118. Pundziute-Lycka A, Urbonaite B, Dahlquist G. Infections and risk of type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in Lithuanian children. Diabetologia 2000;43(10):1229-1234.

119. Dahlquist G, Kallen B. Maternal-child blood group incompatibility and other perinatal events increase the risk for early-onset type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 1992;35(7):671-675.

120. Nelson RJ, Drazen DL. Seasonal changes in stress responses. In: Fink G, editor. Encylopedia of Stress. Volume 3. San Diego: Academic Press; 2000. p 402-408.

121. Lo SSS, Tun RYM, Leslie RDG. Non-genetic factors causing type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med 1991;8:609-618.

122. Gorsuch AN, Spencer KM, Lister J. Evidence for a long prediabetic period in type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus. Lancet 1981;ii:1363-1365.

123. Dahlquist GG, Patterson C, Soltesz G. Perinatal risk factors for childhood type 1 diabetes in Europe. The EURODIAB Substudy 2 Study Group. Diabetes Care 1999;22(10):1698-1702.

124. Patterson CC, Carson DJ, Hadden DR, Waugh NR, Cole SK. A case-control investigation of perinatal risk factors for childhood IDDM in northern Ireland and Scotland. Diabetes Care 1994;17(5):376-381.

125. Betteridge DJ, editor. Diabetes: current perspectives. London: Martin Dunitz; 2000.

back to the top

126. Dahlquist GG, Ivarsson S, Lindberg B, Forsgren M. Maternal enteroviral infection during pregnancy as a risk factor for childhood IDDM. A population-based case-control study. Diabetes 1995;44(4):408-413.

127. McKinney PA, Parslow R, Gurney K, Law G, Bodansky HJ, Williams DRR. Antenatal risk factors for childhood diabetes mellitus: a case control study of medical record data in Yorkshire, UK. Diabetologia 1997;40:933-939.

128. Dahlquist G, Frisk G, Ivarsson SA, Svanberg L, Forsgren M, Diderholm H. Indications that maternal coxsackie B virus infection during pregnancy is a risk factor for childhood-onset IDDM. Diabetologia 1995;38(11):1371-1373.

129. Dahlquist G, Bennich SS, Kallen B. Intrauterine growth pattern and risk of childhood onset insulin dependent (type I) diabetes: population based case-control study. BMJ 1996;313(7066):1174-1177.

130. Heidrich SM, Cranley MS. Effect of fetal movement, ultrasound scans, and amniocentesis on maternal-fetal attachment. Nurs Res 1989;38(2):81-84.

131. Dahlquist G, Kallen B. Early neonatal events and the disease incidence in nonobese diabetic mice. Pediatr Res 1997;42(4):489-491.

132. Schobel HP, Fischer T, Heuszer K, Geiger H, Schmieder RE. Preeclampsia: a state of sympathetic overactivity. N Engl J Med 1996;335(20):1480-1485.

133. Zuspan FP. Catecholamines. Their role in pregnancy and the development of pregnancy-induced hypertension. J Reprod Med 1979;23(3):143-150.

134. Abboud T, Artal R, Sarkis F, Henriksen EH, Kammula RK. Sympathoadrenal activity, maternal, fetal, and neonatal responses after epidural anesthesia in the preeclamptic patient. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982;144(8):915-918.

135. Greenwood JP, Scott EM, Walker JJ, Stoker JB, Mary DASG. The magnitude of sympathetic hyperactivity in pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia. Am J Hypertens 2003;16:194-199.

136. Lewinsky RM, Riskin-Mashiah S. Autonomic imbalance in preeclampsia: evidence for increased sympathetic tone in response to the supine-pressor test. Obstet Gynecol 1998;91(6):935-939.

137. Ryding EL, Wijma B, Wijma K. Posttraumatic stress reactions after emergency cesarean section. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1997;76:856-861.

138. Mayer EJ, Hamman RF, Gay EC, Lezotte DC, Savitz DA, Klingensmith GJ. Reduced risk of IDDM among breast-fed children. The Colorado IDDM Registry. Diabetes 1988;37(12):1625-1632.

139. Blom L, Dahlquist G, Nystrom L, Sandstrom A, Wall S. The Swedish childhood diabetes study: social and perinatal determinants for diabetes in childhood. Diabetologia 1989;32(1):7-13.

140. Kostraba JN, Cruickshanks KJ, Lawler-Heavner J et al. Early exposure to cow's milk and solid foods in infancy, genetic predisposition, and risk of IDDM. Diabetes 1993;42(2):288-295.

141. Karjalainen J, martin JM, Knip M et al. A bovine serum albumin peptide as a possible trigger of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1992;327:302-307.

142. Norris JM, Beaty B, Klingensmith G et al. Lack of association between early exposure to cow's milk protein and beta-cell autoimmunity. Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) [see comments]. JAMA 1996;276(8):609-614. 1

43. Schatz DA, Maclaren NK. Cow's milk and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: innocent until proven guilty. JAMA 1996;276(8):647-648.

144. Samuelsson U, Johansson C, Ludvigsson J. Breastfeeding seems to play a marginal role in the prevention of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1993;19:203-210.

145. Borch-Johnsen K, Joner G, Mandrup-Poulsen T et al. Relation between breast-feeding and incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a hypothesis. Lancet 1984;2:1083-1086.

146. Huang Z, Cabanela V, Howell T. Stress, bottlefeeding, and diabetes [letter; comment]. Lancet 1997;350(9081):889.

147. Karvonen M, Viik-Kajander M, Moltchanova E, Libman I, LaPorte R, Tuomilehto J. Incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes worldwide. Diabetes Mondiale (DiaMond) Project Group. Diabetes Care 2000;23(10):1516-1526.

148. Riley WJ, Maclaren NK, Krischer J et al. A prospective study of the development of diabetes in relatives of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. N Engl J Med 1990;323(17):1167-1172.

149. Lawler-Heavner J, Cruickshanks KJ, Hay WW, Gay EC, Hamman RF. Birth size and risk of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1994;24(3):153-159.

back to the top

150. Johnston C, Milward BA, Hoskins P, Leslie RDG, Bottazzo GF, Pyke DA. Islet-cell antibodies as predictors of the later development of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. A study in identical twins. Diabetologia 1989;32:382-386.

151. Bonifacio E, Bingley PJ, Shattock M et al. Quantification of islet-cell antibodies and prediction of insulin-dependent diabetes. Lancet 1990;335:147-149.

152. Wegmann DR, Eisenbarth GS. It's insulin. J Autoimmun 2000;15:286-291.

153. Leslie DG, Elliot RB. Early environmental events as a cause of IDDM. Diabetes 1994;43:843-850.

154. Vives-Pi M, Somoza N, Vargas F et al. Expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in the alpha, beta and delta cells of normal and diabetic pancreas: implications for the pathogenesis of type I diabetes. Clin Exp Immunol 1993;92(3):391-396.

155. Yu L, Rewers M, Gianani R et al. Antiislet autoantibodies usually develop sequentially rather than simultaneously. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81(12):4264-4267.

156. Yu J, Yu L, Bugawan TL et al. Transient antiislet autoantibodies: infrequent occurrence and lack of association with "genetic" risk factors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85(7):2421-2328.

157. Spencer KM, Tarn A, Dean BM, Lister J, Bottazzo GF. Fluctuating islet-cell autoimmunity in unaffected relatives of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. Lancet 1984;1:764-766.

158. Yu L, Robles DT, Abiru N et al. Early expression of antiinsulin autoantibodies of humans and the NOD mouse: evidence for early determination of subsequent diabetes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2000;97(4):1701-1706.

159. Sapolsky RM. Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers: An Updated Guide to Stress, Stress-related Diseases, and Coping. New York: W.H. Freeman & Co; 1998.

160. Karjalainen JK. Islet cell antibodies as predictive markers for IDDM in children with high background incidence of disease. Diabetes 1990;39:1146-1150.

161. Greenbaum C, Sears K, Kahn S, Palmer J. Relationship of B-cell function and autoantibodies to progression and nonprogression of subclinical type I diabetes. Diabetes 1999;48:170-175.

162. Goddard G, McIntyre D, Leetch C. A permanent change in brain functioning resulting from daily electrical stimulation. Exp Neurol 1969;25:295-330.

© copyright 2004-2017 | Veronique Mead | all rights reserved | design by A5design   visit me on my chronic illness blog Tumbling the Stone