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   . table of contents .





Table of Contents


Abstract of Full Article


I. Introduction



II. The Role of Early Factors in Nervous System Development


Abstract
Experience-dependent maturation
   Gene-environment interactions
   Synapse development
   Critical period programming

Influence of the prenatal environment
   Maternal-infant bonding & regulation
   The sensitive period
   Bonding disruption
   Prenatal stress


III. The Role of Trauma in Shaping the Nervous System



Abstract
Introduction and Definition of Trauma

Risk for ANS dysfunction
   Kindling
   Reinstatement
   The role of perception
   Risk in early life
   Prenatal stress
   Rate of progression

IV. A Model of Autonomic Dysfunction



V. Relevance of the Model to Origins of Type 1 Diabetes


Stress, traumatic stress & type 1 Diabetes
   Stress and glucose variations in diabetes
   Risk factors preceding diagnosis

Perinatal risk factors
   Early Separation
   Breastfeeding and cow's milk

Timing of Diagnosis
   Age of Onset
   The preclinical phase
   Rate of Progression
   Autoimmune activity

Concluding Remarks



Acknowledgements


References


Abstract: Early Life


This article describes research on the role of the environment in shaping the development of the nervous system, including influence on synapse formation and capacity for autonomic regulation. Perspectives regarding the role of environmental factors in the development of physiological regulation contribute to our increasing understanding of the impact of gene-environment interactions in the origins of chronic illness such as type 1 diabetes. This excerpt emphasizes the role of the prenatal and perinatal time frame.

Abstract: Trauma


This article describes research on the role of environmental factors affecting autonomic regulation and predisposition for states of sympathetic and parasympathetic dominance. Perspectives regarding the role of environmental factors in physiological regulation contribute to our increasing understanding of the impact of gene-environment interactions in the origins of chronic illness such as type 1 diabetes. This excerpt emphasizes research on the role of traumatic stress.


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